Notes

Chapter 1 – Trouble in Paradise

  1. Richard Sennett, The Craftsman (Penguin, 2009).

  2. 2017 Cone Communications CSR Study, conecomm.com.

  3. See Bruno Latour, Pandora's Hope: Essays on the Reality of Science Studies (Harvard University Press, 1999) for one analysis of this argument.

  4. Peter-Paul Verbeek, Moralizing Technology (University of Chicago Press, 2011). Verbeek in turn draws on the work of Don Ihde and Latour.

  5. Melvin Kranzberg, ‘Software for Human Hardware?’, in Pranas Zunde & Dan Hocking (eds.), Empirical Foundations of Information and Software Science V (Plenum Press 1990).

  6. One of those seductive quotes of hazy origin, often attributed to Maxim Gorky, and spoken in Jean-Luc Godard’s film Le petit soldat, attributed to Lenin.

  7. Caroline Whitbeck, Ethics in Engineering Practice and Research (Cambridge University Press, 2nd ed., 2011).

Chapter 2 – Do No Harm?

  1. Or so says economist Horst Siebert, at least. The tale is possibly apocryphal, but even an anecdote can contain an undeniable truth: things don’t always turn out as planned.

  2. Paul Virilio, Politics of the Very Worst (Semiotexte, 1999).

  3. Don Ihde, Technology and the Lifeworld (Indiana University Press, 1990).

  4. Shannon Hall, ‘Exxon Knew about Climate Change almost 40 years ago’, Scientific American, 26 Oct 2015, scientificamerican.com.

  5. See Thomas Wendt, ‘Decentering Design or a Critique of Human-Centered Design’, slideshare.net.

  6. Ben Thompson, ‘Airbnb Versus Hotels’, Stratechery, 18 Apr 2017, stratechery.com.

  7. Ursula Franklin, The Real World of Technology (House of Anansi Press, 2nd ed., 1999).

  8. David Ingold and Spencer Soper, ‘Amazon Doesn’t Consider the Race of Its Customers. Should It?’, Bloomberg, 21 Apr 2016, bloomberg.com.

  9. Joanna Bryson, ‘Three very different sources of bias in AI, and how to fix them’, 13 Jul 2017, joanna-bryson.blogspot.com.

  10. Aylin Caliskan, Joanna Bryson, Arvind Narayanan, ‘Semantics derived automatically from language corpora contain human-like biases’, Science, 14 Apr 2017, 183–186.

  11. Chris Ip, ‘In 2017, society started taking AI bias seriously’, Engadget, 21 Dec 2017, engadget.com.

  12. Andrew Thompson, ‘Google’s Sentiment Analyzer Thinks Being Gay Is Bad’, VICE Motherboard, 25 Oct 2017, vice.com.

  13. Laura Hudson, ‘Technology Is Biased Too. How Do We Fix It?’, FiveThirtyEight, 20 Jul 2017, fivethirtyeight.com.

  14. Stella Lowry and Gordon Macpherson, ‘A blot on the profession’, British Medical Journal Vol. 296, 5 March 1988.

  15. Christian Rudder, ‘Race and Attraction, 2009–2014’, OkCupid, 10 Sep 2014, okcupid.com.

  16. Lizzie Edmonds, ‘Google forced to remove vile racist search suggestions from its site for a number of British cities including Bradford, Leicester and Birmingham’, MailOnline, 11 Feb 2014, dailymail.co.uk.

  17. I think it's time we broke for lunch…’, The Economist, 14 Apr 2011, economist.com.

  18. Carlota Perez, Technological Revolutions and Financial Capital: The Dynamics of Bubbles and Golden Ages (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2003).

  19. Terminator 2: Judgement Day, dir. James Cameron (TriStar Pictures, 1991). You could argue these aren’t Sarah’s words but John’s, passed on by Kyle through Sarah back to John.

  20. Originally conceived by military strategist Charles Taylor and adapted by several futurists since.

  21. Octavia Butler, ‘A Few Rules for Predicting the Future’, Essence Magazine, 2000.

  22. Shannon Vallor, Technology and the Virtues (Oxford University Press, 2016).

  23. Genevieve Bell, ‘Rage Against the Machine?’, talk at Interaction12 conference.

  24. Eric Meyer and Sara Wachter-Boettcher, Design for Real Life (A Book Apart, 2016).

  25. My name, extending an idea by Sam Jeffers.

  26. Cameron Tonkinwise, ‘Ethics by Design, or the Ethos of Things’, Design Philosophy Papers, 2:2, 129-144, 2004.

  27. Jared Spool, ‘Creating Great Design Principles: 6 Counter-intuitive Tests’, UIE, 1 Mar 2011, uie.com.

  28. Anand Giridharadas, ‘A tale of two Americas. And the mini-mart where they collided’, talk at TED2015 conference, ted.com.

  29. Shannon Vallor, ‘An Introduction to Data Ethics: a resource for data science courses’, Markkula Center for Applied Ethics, scu.edu.

Chapter 3 – Persuasive Mechanisms

  1. Langdon Winner, ‘Do Artifacts Have Politics?’, Daedalus 109, no. 1 (1980): 121-36.

  2. Daniel Berdichevsky and Erik Neuenschwander, ‘Toward an ethics of persuasive technology’, Communications of the ACM, 42, 5 (May 1999), 51–58.

  3. Coined by Harry Brignull; see darkpatterns.org.

  4. Tim Wu, The Attention Merchants: The Epic Scramble to Get Inside Our Heads (Knopf Publishing Group, 2016).

  5. Peter Kafka, ‘Amazon? HBO? Netflix thinks its real competitor is... sleep’, Recode, 17 Apr 2017, recode.net.

  6. Kleiner Perkins Internet Trends 2017, kpcb.com/internet-trends.

  7. Ian Bogost, ‘The App That Does Nothing’, The Atlantic, 9 Jun 2017, theatlantic.com. Bogost is a theorist of persuasive games and designer of Cow Clicker, a notorious commentary on the manipulative aspects of FarmVille. Cow Clicker players had but one objective: to click a cow. The game amassed 50,000 users before Bogost triggered a ‘Cowpocalypse’, vanishing the cows into ironic rapture.

  8. Adam Cramer, Jamie Guillory, Jeffrey Hancock, ‘Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), 17 Jun 2014 vol. 111 no. 24 8,788–8,790.

  9. Ariel Rubinstein and Ayala Arad, ‘The People’s Perspective on Libertarian-Paternalistic Policies’ (2015).

  10. Molly Sauter, ‘The Apophenic Machine’, Real Life Magazine, reallifemag.com.

  11. Chris Wade, ‘The Reddit Reckoning’, Slate, 15 Apr 2014, slate.com. 

  12. A remarkable inconsistency discovered by journalist Olivia Solon.

  13. Berit Anderson and Brett Horvath, ‘The Rise of the Weaponized AI Propaganda Machine’, scout.ai.

  14. Philip Howard, and Bence Kollanyi, ‘Bots, #Strongerin, and #Brexit: Computational Propaganda during the UK-EU Referendum’ Working Paper 2016.1. Oxford, UK: Project on Computational Propaganda.

  15. Jeff Bezos, ‘2015 Letter to Shareholders’.

  16. Paul Robinette et al., ‘Overtrust of robots in emergency evacuation scenarios’, 2016 11th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), Christchurch, 2016, pp. 101-108.

  17. Sandra Matz et al., ‘Psychological targeting as an effective approach to digital mass persuasion’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 2017.

  18. Dana Mattioli, ‘On Orbitz, Mac Users Steered to Pricier Hotels’, The Wall Street Journal, 23 Aug 2012, wsj.com.

  19. John D. Sutter, ‘Amazon seller lists book at $23,698,655.93 – plus shipping’, CNN, 25 Apr 2011, cnn.com.

  20. Lyrebird, ‘With great innovation comes great responsibility’, lyrebird.ai/ethics.

  21. Daniel Berdichevsky and Erik Neuenschwander, ‘Toward an ethics of persuasive technology’, Communications of the ACM, 42, 5 (May 1999), 51–58.

  22. BJ Fogg, Persuasive Technology (Morgan Kaufman, 2003).

  23. Richard Thaler, ‘The Power of Nudges, for Good and Bad’, New York Times, 31 Oct 2015, nytimes.com.

  24. Nynke Tromp et al., ‘Design for Socially Responsible Behavior’, Design Issues, Volume 27, Number 3, Summer 2011.

  25. Luciano Floridi, ‘Tolerant Paternalism: Pro-ethical Design as a Resolution of the Dilemma of Toleration’, Science and Engineering Ethics (2016), 22: 1669.

  26. His first formulation of the ‘categorical imperative’, from Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals.

  27. Again from the categorical imperative, this time the second formulation.

  28. John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (Harvard University Press, 1971).

  29. Now run by the Center for Humane Technology, humanetech.com.

Chapter 4 – The Data Deluge

  1. Cornelius Puschmann & Jean Burgess, ‘Metaphors of Big Data’, International Journal Of Communication, 8, 20. (2014).

  2. Bruce Schneier, ‘We Give Up Our Data Too Cheaply’, Vice Motherboard, 2 Mar 2015, vice.com.

  3. Dave Gershgorn, ‘Stanford trained AI to diagnose pneumonia better than a radiologist in just two months’, Quartz, 16 Nov 2017, qz.com.

  4. AI vs. Lawyers’, lawgeex.com.

  5. Allison Linn, ‘Microsoft creates AI that can read a document and answer questions about it as well as a person’, microsoft.com, 15 Jan 2018.

  6. Julian M. Goldman, MD, ‘Medical Device Interoperability Ecosystem Updates: Device Clock Time, Value Proposition, and the FDA Regulatory Pathway’, NSF CPS Large Site Visit, 31 Jan 2012.

  7. Geoffrey C Bowker, Memory Practices in the Sciences (MIT Press, 2006).

  8. See Adam Greenfield, Radical Technologies (Verso 2017).

  9. Richard A. Posner, ‘Privacy, Secrecy, and Reputation’, 28 Buffalo Law Review 1 (1979).

  10. Kashmir Hill, ‘Facebook recommended that this psychiatrist's patients friend each other’, Splinter, 29 Aug 2018, splinternews.com.

  11. Richard A. Posner, ‘Privacy, Secrecy, and Reputation’, 28 Buffalo Law Review 1 (1979).

  12. Self-driving cars offer huge benefits—but have a dark side’, The Economist, 1 Mar 2018, economist.com.

  13. Arvind Narayanan and Vitaly Shmatikov. ‘Robust De-anonymization of Large Datasets (How to Break Anonymity of the Netflix Prize Dataset)’, 2006.

  14. Latanya Sweeney, ‘Simple Demographics Often Identify People Uniquely’, Carnegie Mellon University working paper, Data Privacy, 2000.

  15. Pinboard (@pinboard), Twitter, 8 Jan 2017.

  16. Michael Zimmer, ‘OkCupid Study Reveals the Perils of Big-Data Science’, WIRED, 14 May 2016, wired.com.

  17. Bruno Latour, Pandora's Hope: Essays on the Reality of Science Studies (Harvard University Press 1999).

  18. Jacob Hoffman-Andrews, ‘Victory: Verizon Will Stop Tagging Customers for Tracking Without Consent’, 7 Mar 2016, eff.org.

  19. Luciano Floridi, ‘Google ethics adviser: The law needs bold ideas to address the digital age’, The Guardian, 4 Jun 2014, theguardian.com.

  20. Sheila Janasoff, The Ethics of Invention: Technology and the Human Future (W. W. Norton & Company, 2016).

  21. Michee Smith, ‘Updating our “right to be forgotten” Transparency Report’, Google in Europe blog, 26 Feb 2018, www.blog.google.

  22. Gareth Corfield, ‘Here is how Google handles Right To Be Forgotten requests’, The Register, 19 Mar 2018, theregister.co.uk.

  23. Sam Harris, The Moral Landscape (Simon & Schuster 2010). 

  24. Mary Warnock, An Intelligent Person’s Guide to Ethics (Gerald Duckworth & Co 2001).

  25. Really. See Avram Piltch, ‘Why Using an Ad Blocker Is Stealing (Op-Ed)’, Tom’s Guide, 22 May 2015, tomsguide.com.

  26. James Williams, ‘Why It’s OK to Block Ads’, Oxford University Practical Ethics blog, practicalethics.ox.ac.uk.

  27. Matt Blaze (@mattblaze), Twitter, 3 Feb 2018.

  28. Immaterials artist Timo Arnall on seeing the invisible’, Lighthouse, 9 Jun 2015, lighthouse.org.

  29. Martin Heidegger, Being and Time (Max Niemeyer Verlag Tübingen, 1927). No book on ethics can mention Heidegger without addressing his fascism and antisemitism. Heidegger was a member of the Nazi Party for many years and died apparently unrepentant. I can only acknowledge, not resolve, the conundrum of whether his abhorrent politics should diminish his philosophical insight; Joshua Rothman’s New Yorker article ‘Is Heidegger Contaminated by Nazism?’ offers an intelligent review.

  30. Amber Case, ‘Calm Technology: Design for the Next Generation of Devices’, talk at TNW Conference 2017.

  31. Benedict Evans (@benedictevans), Twitter, 31 Dec 2017.

  32. Natalie Kane, ‘Private Data Is the Ultimate Luxury Good’, Vice Motherboard, 27 Sep 2016, motherboard.vice.com.

  33. Jun Tang et al, ‘Privacy Loss in Apple’s Implementation of Differential Privacy on MacOS 10.12’, arxiv.org/abs/1709.02753.

  34. Andy Greenberg, ‘How One of Apple’s Key Privacy Safeguards Falls Short’, WIRED, 15 Sep 2017, wired.com.

  35. Ivan Krstić, ‘How iOS Security Really Works’, talk at Apple Worldwide Developer Conference 2016.

  36. Ben Thompson, ‘Facebook’s Earnings, Facebook’s Strategy Credit (and Apple’s), Facebook and the Future’, Stratechery, 2 Nov 2017, stratechery.com.

Chapter 5 – Seeing Through New Eyes

  1. Steve Lohr, ‘Facial Recognition Is Accurate, if You’re a White Guy’, The New York Times, 9 Feb 2018, nytimes.com.

  2. Joon Son Chung et al, ‘Lip Reading Sentences in the Wild’, IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2017.

  3. Yan Michalevsky et al, ‘Gyrophone: recognizing speech from gyroscope signals’, Proceedings of the 23rd USENIX conference on Security Symposium (SEC'14), 2014.

  4. Abe Davis et al, ‘The Visual Microphone: Passive Recovery of Sound from Video’, ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proc. SIGGRAPH), 33, 4, 2014.

  5. Daniel Arp et al, ‘Privacy Threats through Ultrasonic Side Channels on Mobile Devices’, IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS&P), Paris, 2017.

  6. Tom Dart, ‘Y’all have a Texas accent? Siri (and the world) might be slowly killing it’, The Guardian, 10 Feb 2016, theguardian.com.

  7. Kashmir Hill and Surya Mattu, ‘Facebook Knows How to Track You Using the Dust on Your Camera Lens’, Gizmodo, 11 Jan 2018, gizmodo.com.

  8. Transport for London, ‘Review of the TfL WiFi pilot’.

  9. Hao-Yu Wu et al, ‘Eulerian video magnification for revealing subtle changes in the worldACM Trans. Graph. 31, 4, Article 65 (Jul 2012).

  10. Chris Wood, ‘WhatsApp photo drug dealer caught by “groundbreaking” work’, BBC News, 15 Apr 2018, bbc.co.uk.

  11. Timnit Gebru et al, ‘Using deep learning and Google Street View to estimate the demographic makeup of neighborhoods across the United States’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Nov 2017.

  12. From Michal Kosinski and Yilun Wang, ‘Deep Neural Networks Are More Accurate Than Humans at Detecting Sexual Orientation From Facial Images’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Feb 2018, Vol. 114, Issue 2. Reprinted with permission of the APA.

  13. Greggor Mattson, ‘artificial intelligence discovers gayface. sigh.’, Scatterplot, 10 Sep 2017, scatter.wordpress.com.

  14. Doreen Sullivan, ‘A brief history of homophobia in Dewey decimal classification’, Overland, 23 Jul 2015, overland.org.au. 

  15. Advances in AI are used to spot signs of sexuality’, The Economist, 9 Sep 2017, economist.com.

  16. Michal Kosinski and Yilun Wang, ‘Authors’ note: Deep neural networks are more accurate than humans at detecting sexual orientation from facial images’, 28 Sep 2017.

  17. Randy Cohen, ‘Doing the Outsourcing’, The New York Times Magazine, 4 Feb 2011, nytimes.com.

  18. Jonathan Glover and M. J. Scott-Taggart, ‘It Makes no Difference Whether or Not I Do It’, Aristotelian Society Supplementary, Volume 49 (1):171 - 209, 1975.

  19. Felix Salmon, ‘The Creepy Rise of Real Companies Spawning Fictional Design’, Slate, 30 May 2018, slate.com. 

  20. Chris Noessel, Designing Agentive Technology (Rosenfeld Media, 2017).

  21. State of California Department of Motor Vehicles, ‘Autonomous Vehicle Disengagement Reports 2017’, dma.ca.gov.

  22. Alexander Eriksson and Neville A Stanton, ‘Take-over time in highly automated vehicles: non-critical transitions to and from manual control’, Human Factors 59, 4, 2017.

  23. Jeff Wise, ‘What Really Happened Aboard Air France 447’, Popular Mechanics, 6 Dec 2011, popularmechanics.com.

  24. Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media (McGraw-Hill, 1964).

  25. David Meyer, ‘Police Tested Facial Recognition at a Major Sporting Event. The Results Were Disastrous’, Fortune, 7 May 2018, fortune.com.

  26. Dan Simmons, ‘BBC fools HSBC voice recognition security system’, BBC News, 19 May 2018, bbc.co.uk.

  27. Bryant Walker Smith, ‘Human Error as a Cause of Vehicle Crashes’, The Center for Internet and Society blog, 18 Dec 2013, cyberlaw.stanford.edu.

  28. Kirk Mitchell, ‘Man sues FBI and Denver police for $10 million claiming false arrest for 2 bank robberies and excessive force’, The Denver Post, 15 Sep 2016, denverpost.com.

  29. Evan Selinger, ‘Amazon Needs to Stop Providing Facial Recognition Tech for the Government’, Medium, 21 Jun 2018, medium.com.

  30. Philippa Foot, ‘The Problem of Abortion and the Doctrine of the Double Effect’, Oxford Review, Number 5, 1967.

  31. Alexis C Madrigal, ‘Uber’s Self-Driving Car Didn’t Malfunction, It Was Just Bad’, The Atlantic, 24 May 2018, theatlantic.com.

  32. Alex Hern, ‘Self-driving cars don’t care about your moral dilemmas’, The Guardian, 22 Aug 2016, theguardian.com.

  33. Jean-François Bonnefon et al, ‘The social dilemma of autonomous vehicles’, Science, vol. 35, 2016.

  34. Eric D. Lawrence et al, ‘Death on foot: America's love of SUVs is killing pedestrians’, Detroit Free Press, 1 Jul 2018, freep.com.

  35. John Danaher, ‘The Ethics of Crash Optimisation Algorithms’, Philosophical Disquisitions, 28 Apr 2017, philosophicaldisquisitions.blogspot.co.uk.

  36. Liesl Yearsley, ‘We Need to Talk About the Power of AI to Manipulate Humans’, MIT Technology Review, 5 Jun 2017, technologyreview.com. 

  37. Donna Haraway, The Companion Species Manifesto (University of Chicago Press, 2nd ed., 2003).

  38. Ibid.

  39. Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan.

  40. Todd Kulesza et al, ‘Principles of Explanatory Debugging to Personalize Interactive Machine Learning’, Proceedings of IUI, 2015.

  41. Sandra Wachter et al, ‘Counterfactual Explanations without Opening the Black Box: Automated Decisions and the GDPR’, Harvard Journal of Law & Technology, 31 (2), 2018.

  42. The Alan Turing Institute, ‘A right to explanation’, turing.ac.uk.

  43. Shannon Vallor, Technology and the Virtues (Oxford University Press, 2016).

  44. Batya Friedman et al, ‘Value Sensitive Design and Information Systems’, Philosophy of Engineering and Technology, vol 16, 2013.

Chapter 6 – You Have Twenty Seconds To Comply

  1. Nellie Bowles, ‘Thermostats, Locks and Lights: Digital Tools of Domestic Abuse’, The New York Times, 23 Jun 2018, nytimes.com. 

  2. Chris Noessel, Designing Agentive Technology (Rosenfeld Media, 2017).

  3. Caroline Sinders, ‘Silicon Valley’s harassment problem’, VICE News, 28 May 2017, news.vice.com.

  4. Sarah Jeong, The Internet of Garbage (Forbes Media, 2015).

  5. Megan Strait et al, ‘Robots Racialized in the Likeness of Marginalized Social Identities are Subject to Greater Dehumanization than those racialized as White’, arxiv.org/abs/1808.00320.

  6. Leah Fessler, ‘We tested bots like Siri and Alexa to see who would stand up to sexual harassment’, Quartz, 22 Feb 2017, qz.com.

  7. Josh Halliday, ‘Twitter’s Tony Wang: “We are the free speech wing of the free speech party”’, The Guardian, 22 Mar 2012, theguardian.com.

  8. Isaiah Berlin, ‘Two Concepts of Liberty’, from Four Essays on Liberty (Oxford University Press, 1969).

  9. Karl Popper, The Open Society and Its Enemies, Volume 1 (Routledge, 1945).

  10. Lauren Weber & Deepa Seetharaman, ‘The Worst Job in Technology: Staring at Human Depravity to Keep It Off Facebook’, The Wall Street Journal, 27 Dec 2017, wsj.com.

  11. Sophie Kleeman, ‘Woman Charged With False Reporting After Her Fitbit Contradicted Her Rape Claim’, Mic, 25 Jun 2015, mic.com.

  12. Man who claimed his wife was murdered by an intruder pleads not guilty to murder after cops find information on her Fitbit that contradicted his story’, MailOnline, 28 Apr 2017, dailymail.co.uk.

  13. Sarah Brayne, ‘Big Data Surveillance: The Case of Policing’, American Sociological Review, Vol 82, Issue 5.

  14. Sadie Gurman, ‘AP: Across US, police officers abuse confidential databases’, AP, 28 Sep 2016, apnews.com.

  15. Clare Garvie et al, ‘The Perpetual Line-Up: Racial Bias’, perpetuallineup.org.

  16. Kay Lazar, ‘State Police union files complaint about GPS vehicle tracking’, Boston Globe, 10 May 2018, bostonglobe.com.

  17. Tim Cook, ‘A Message to Our Customers’, 16 Feb 2016, apple.com/customer-letter.

  18. CBS News poll: Americans split on unlocking San Bernardino shooter's iPhone’, CBS News, 18 Mar 2016, cbsnews.com.

  19. Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince.

  20. Ben Franklin’s Famous “Liberty, Safety” Quote Lost Its Context In 21st Century’, All Things Considered, 2 Mar 2015, npr.org.

  21. Michael Brown, ‘Apple vs. FBI and the ethics of encryption’, Folio, 26 Feb 2016, folio.ca.

  22. Chris Whipple, ‘What the CIA knew before 9/11: New details’, Politico, 13 Nov 2015, politico.eu.

  23. Daniel Crevier, AI: The Tumultuous History of the Search for Artificial Intelligence (Basic Books, 1993).

  24. Tanya O’Carroll and Joshua Franco, ‘Why build a Muslim registry when you can buy it?’, Amnesty Global Insights, 27 Feb 2017, medium.com.

  25. Freedom House, ‘Silencing the Messenger: Communication Apps Under Pressure’, freedomhouse.org.

  26. Thanks to Ian Goodwin (@isgoodrum) for breaking down these measures on Twitter.

  27. Ed Jefferson, ‘No, China isn’t Black Mirror – social credit scores are more complex and sinister than that’, New Statesman, 27 Apr 2018, newstatesman.com.

  28. Miranda Hall and Duncan McCann, ‘What’s Your Score? How Discriminatory Algorithms Control Access and Opportunity’, New Economics Foundation, 10 Jul 2018, neweconomics.org.

  29. David Cole, ‘Can the NSA Be Controlled?’, The New York Review of Books, 19 Jun 2014, nybooks.com.

  30. Public resigned to data collection and surveillance’, Economic and Social Research Council, esrc.ukri.org.

  31. lily jackson (@lillyzela), Twitter, 5 Dec 2017.

  32. Daniel Solove, ‘“I’ve Got Nothing to Hide” and Other Misunderstandings of Privacy’. San Diego Law Review, Vol. 44, p. 745, 2007.

  33. See Adam Greenfield, Radical Technologies (Verso 2017).

  34. Simon Parkin, ‘Killer robots: The soldiers that never sleep’, BBC Future, 16 July 2015, bbc.com.

  35. Caroline Lester, ‘What Happens When Your Bomb-Defusing Robot Becomes a Weapon’, The Atlantic, 26 Apr 2018, theatlantic.com.

  36. The Future of Life Institute & Stuart Russell, Slaughterbots (2017).

  37. Sarah A. Topol, ‘Attack of the Killer Robots’, Buzzfeed, 26 Aug 2016, buzzfeed.com.

  38. Campaign to Stop Killer Robots, ‘Country Views on Killer Robots’, stopkillerrobots.org.

  39. Ash Carter, ‘Remarks on “The Path to an Innovative Future for Defense”’, defense.gov.

  40. Dan Lamothe, ‘The killer robot threat: Pentagon examining how enemy nations could empower machines’, The Washington Post, 30 Mar 2016, washingtonpost.com.

  41. Paul Scharre, Army of None: Autonomous Weapons and the Future of War (W. W. Norton & Company, 2018).

  42. Jamie Condliffe, ‘AI Shouldn’t Believe Everything It Hears’, MIT Technology Review, 28 Jul 2017, technologyreview.com.

  43. Louise Matsakis, ‘Researchers Fooled a Google AI into Thinking a Rifle Was a Helicopter’, WIRED, 20 Dec 2017, wired.com.

  44. Amarjot Singh et al, ‘Disguised Face Identification (DFI) with Facial KeyPoints using Spatial Fusion Convolutional Network’, presented at the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision Workshops (ICCVW) 2017.

  45. Henry David Thoreau, ‘Civil Disobedience’ (1849).

  46. Daisuke Wakabayashi and Scott Shane, ‘Google Will Not Renew Pentagon Contract That Upset Employees’, The New York Times, 1 Jun 2018, nytimes.com.

  47. Nabil Hassein, ‘Against Black Inclusion in Facial Recognition’, Digital Talking Drum, 15 Aug 2017, digitaltalkingdrum.com.

  48. Anthony Dunne and Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything (MIT Press, 2014).

  49. Freedom of the Press Foundation, ‘Here’s how to share sensitive leaks with the press’, freedom.press.

Chapter 7 – Software Is Heating the World

  1. NASA Global Climate Change website, climate.nasa.gov.

  2. Adrian E. Raftery et al, ‘Less than 2 °C warming by 2100 unlikely’, Nature Climate Change volume 7, 2017, nature.com.

  3. World Bank Group, ‘Turn Down the Heat: Confronting the New Climate Normal’, 2014. Openknowledge.worldbank.org.

  4. Roy Scranton, ‘Learning How to Die in the Anthropocene’, The New York Times, 10 Nov 2013, opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com.

  5. Victor Papanek, Design for the Real World (Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1985).

  6. Jenna R Krall and Roger D Peng, ‘The difficulty of calculating deaths caused by the Volkswagen scandal’, The Guardian, 9 Dec 2015, theguardian.com.

  7. Tom Bawden, ‘Global warming: Data centres to consume three times as much energy in next decade, experts warn’, The Independent, 23 Jan 2016, independent.co.uk.

  8. Greenpeace, ‘Clicking Clean: Who Is Winning The Race To Build A Green Internet?’ report 2017, greenpeace.org.

  9. Centre for Energy-Efficient Telecommunications, ‘The Power of Wireless Cloud’ white paper, 2013.

  10. Fatemeh Jalali et al, ‘Energy Consumption of Photo Sharing in Online Social Networks’, 14th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Grid Computing, 2014. [PDF]

  11. Justin Adamson, ‘Carbon and the Cloud’, Stanford Magazine, 15 May 2017, medium.com.

  12. Apple environment reports, apple.com/environment/reports.

  13. Mike Berners-Lee, How Bad Are Bananas?: The Carbon Footprint of Everything (Profile Books, 2010).

  14. Jonathan Kaiman, ‘Rare earth mining in China: the bleak social and environmental costs’, The Guardian, 20 Mar 2014, theguardian.com.

  15. Digiconomist, ‘Bitcoin Energy Consumption Index’, digiconomist.net/bitcoin-energy-consumption.

  16. Gini coefficient estimates for Bitcoin range from 0.67 to 0.88, compared with World Bank national estimates that peak around 0.5: GINI index (World Bank Estimate), data.worldbank.org.

  17. Martin Heidegger, The Question Concerning Technology (Garland Publishing, 1954). See also Thomas Wendt, Design for Dasein (2015) for a design-centric perspective on Heidegger’s work.

  18. Nick Bostrom, Superintelligence (Oxford University Press, 2014).

  19. Shannon Biggs, ‘No surrender: responding to the new breed of climate change in-activists’, openDemocracy, 18 Jun 2014, opendemocracy.net.

  20. Christiana Figueres et al, ‘Three years to safeguard our climate’, Nature, 28 Jun 2017, nature.com.

  21. Victor Papanek, Design for the Real World (Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1985).

  22. Helen Walters, ‘CES: A Symbol of Global Vandalism’, helenwalters.com.

  23. Ronan Cremin, ‘The web is Doom’, MobiForge blog, 19 Apr 2016, mobiforge.com.

  24. Gabrielle Coppola and Esha Dey, ‘Driverless Cars Are Giving Engineers a Fuel Economy Headache’, Bloomberg, 11 Oct 2017, bloomberg.com.

  25. Fergus Green, ‘Anti-fossil fuel norms: a new frontier in climate change politics’, LSE Department of Government blog, blogs.lse.ac.uk.

  26. David Roberts, ‘It’s time to start talking about “negative” carbon dioxide emissions’, Vox, 18 Aug 2017, vox.com.

  27. Richard Somerville, ‘The Ethics of Climate Change’, Yale Environment 360, e360.yale.edu.

  28. Pope Francis, Encyclical Letter Laudato Si’ of the Holy Father Francis on Care For Our Common Home, 2015, vatican.va.

  29. Matt McGrath, ‘Climate change: “Hothouse Earth” risks even if CO2 emissions slashed’, BBC News, 6 Aug 2018, bbc.co.uk.

  30. Jay Springett, ‘Solarpunk: A Reference Guide’, Medium, solarpunks.net/ref.

  31. Adam Flynn, ‘Solarpunk: Notes toward a manifesto’, Hieroglyph, hieroglyph.asu.edu.

  32. Alex Steffen, ‘Yes, I Get on Planes to Fight Climate Change’, Medium, 8 Nov 2016, medium.com.

Chapter 8 – No Cash, No Jobs, No Hope

  1. Richard Dobbs et al, No Ordinary Disruption (PublicAffairs, 2015).

  2. Alison Burke, ‘What is the future of free trade? 5 facts about US trade policy’, 18 Nov 2016, brookings.edu.

  3. Brian Merchant, ‘You’ve Got Luddites All Wrong’, Vice Motherboard, 2 Sep 2014, motherboard.vice.com.

  4. Parliamentary Debates (series 1) vol. 21 col. 966 (27 February 1812).

  5. Katja Grace et al, ‘When Will AI Exceed Human Performance? Evidence from AI Experts’, Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research (AI and Society Track), 2017.

  6. Louis Hyman, ‘It’s Not Technology That’s Disrupting Our Jobs’, The New York Times, 18 Aug 2018, nytimes.com.

  7. Nick Srnicek and Alex Williams, Inventing the Future (Verso Books, 2015).

  8. Douglas Rushkoff, Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity (Penguin Random House, 2016).

  9. David Graeber, ‘On the Phenomenon of Bullshit Jobs: A Work Rant’, Strike Magazine, August 2013, strikemag.org.

  10. Carl Frey & Michael Osborne, ‘The future of employment: How susceptible are jobs to computerisation?’, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 2017, vol. 114, issue C, 254-280.

  11. Ljubica Nedelkoska and Glenda Quintini, ‘Automation, skills use and training’, OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, No. 202, 2018.

  12. Calum Chase, Surviving AI (Three Cs, 2015).

  13. New York Taxi Workers Alliance, ‘NY Uber Drivers Are Employees with Right to Unemployment Insurance’ press release, 19 Jul 2018.

  14. Spanish court rules Deliveroo rider is employee, not self-employed’, Reuters, 4 Jun 2018, reuters.com.

  15. Will Shu, ‘We want Deliveroo riders to have flexibility and the benefits of employment’, Deliveroo Foodscene blog, 23 Jul 2018, foodscene.deliveroo.co.uk.

  16. Rani Molla and Kurt Wagner, ‘People spend almost as much time on Instagram as they do on Facebook’, Recode, 25 Jun 2018, recode.net.

  17. Feng Xiang, ‘AI will spell the end of capitalism’, The Washington Post, 3 May 2018, washingtonpost.com.

  18. Peter Frase, Four Futures: Life After Capitalism (Verso Books, 2016).

  19. Thomas Piketty, Capital in the Twenty-First Century (Harvard University Press, 2014).

  20. Automation: A report to the UAW-CIO Economic and Collective Bargaining Conference’, Nov 1954.

  21. Data for Progress, ‘Polling The Left Agenda’, 2018, dataforprogress.org.

  22. Basic Income Grant Coalition Pilot Project, bignam.org (Namibia); Guy Standing, ‘Unconditional Basic Income: Two pilots in Madhya Pradesh’, prepared for the Delhi Conference, May 2013 (India) [PDF]; Johannes Haushofer and Jeremy Shapiro, ‘The Short-Term Impact of Unconditional Cash Transfers to the Poor: Experimental Evidence from Kenya’, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Volume 131, Issue 4, 1 November 2016, Pages 1973–2042 (Kenya).

  23. Richard Waters, ‘Bill Gates calls for income tax on robots’, The Financial Times, 19 Feb 2017, ft.com.

  24. LM Sacasas, ‘Why We Can’t Have Humane Technology’, 11 Mar 2018, thefrailestthing.com.

  25. Damien Williams, ‘Technoccult News: “In fits and starts…”’, Patreon, 15 Feb 2018, patreon.com.

  26. David Benatar, Better Never to Have Been: The Harm Of Coming Into Existence (Oxford University Press, 2008).

  27. Milton Friedman, ‘The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits’, The New York Times Magazine, 13 Sep 1970, nytimes.com. 

  28. Bertrand Russell, ‘In Praise of Idleness’, Harpers Magazine, Oct 1932.

  29. Jeremy Bentham, An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (Clarendon Press, 1789).

  30. Peter Singer, Animal Liberation (HarperCollins, 1975).

  31. Damien Williams, ‘What Is It Like To Be a Bot?’, Real Life, 7 May 2018, reallifemag.com.

  32. John Searle, ‘Minds, brains, and programs’, Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3): 417-457, 1980.

  33. Evan Selinger, ‘We Don’t Need Robots That Resemble Humans’, Medium, 1 Mar 2018, medium.com.

  34. David Ryan Polgar, ‘We want chatbots to sound more human—but the result could destroy our relationships’, Quartz, 4 Dec 2017, qz.com.

  35. Richard Lawler, ‘Google: Duplex phone calling AI will identify itself’, Engadget, 10 May 2018, engadget.com.

  36. George Dvorsky, ‘Why Asimov's Three Laws Of Robotics Can't Protect Us’, Gizmodo, 28 Mar 2014, gizmodo.com.

  37. Nick Bostrom, ‘What happens when our computers get smarter than we are?’, presentation at TED2015.

  38. See the Future of Life Institute’s ‘FAQ about AI’, futureoflife.org/ai-faqs.

  39. Stephen Hawking, speech at the Leverhulme Centre for the Future of Intelligence, 19 Oct 2016.

  40. Calum Chase, Surviving AI (Three Cs, 2015).

  41. Professor Stuart Russell summarises AI risk’, Oxford Future of Humanity Institute , 8 Dec 2014, fhi.ox.ac.uk/edge-article.

  42. Joe Vesey-Byrne, ‘How humanity will end, according to Nobel Prize winners’, Indy100, 3 Sep 2017, indy100.com.

Chapter 9 – A New Tech Philosophy

  1. Mary Warnock, An Intelligent Person’s Guide to Ethics (Gerald Duckworth & Co 2001).

  2. Peter-Paul Verbeek, Moralizing Technology (University of Chicago Press, 2011).

  3. Paul Bloom, Against Empathy: The Case for Rational Compassion (Vintage, 2018).

  4. Thomas Wendt, ‘Empathy as Faux Ethics’, EPIC, 10 Jan 2017, epicpeople.org.

  5. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, Book II.